What’s in the Sky in September

September

  • Saturn is Mag.o.5 and a beautiful object in the evening sky.

 

The Parker Solar Probe Team Sheds New Light on Structure, Behavior of Inner Solar System Dust. The best time to observe this dust known as the Zodiacal Light for here in the Southern Hemisphere, is around the Southward Equinox which falls this year on 23rd September  AEST. So a couple of days either side you can look for it.
You do need a dark sky to see the zodiacal light so head to the darkest sky you can reach and look just after sunset. Turn off unnecessary lighting to help keep the night dark.

 

  • 20th  Moon at Apogee  0:45hrs AEST distance from Earth 404,557.4 km.
  • 23rd Southward Equinox 11:04:13 Hrs AEST.
  • Universal Nomenclature of the      Equinoxes and Solstices Each celestial object has coordinates similarto a street directory to locate its’ position in

    the heavens.

    Celestial Sphere – An imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth on which the celestial bodies appear to lie.

     

    Celestial Longitude (CLong) – coordinate

    on the Celestial Sphere that corresponds to

    the longitude on Earth and is measured

    from 00.00h. Measured in hours, minutes, seconds or sometimes given as degrees,

    minutes seconds corresponding to degrees

    in a circle, ie 360 degrees.

     

    Celestial Latitude (CLat)– corresponds to latitude on Earth’s surface and is measured

    in degrees, minutes, seconds. Up to 90

    degrees North (Nth) or South (Sth) of the Celestial Equator.

    + for the Northern Hemisphere,

    – for the Southern Hemisphere.

     

    Celestial Equator – directly above the

    Equator on the Earth’s surface.

     

    Northward Equinox – Day & Time the

    Sun crosses the Celestial Equator travelling into the northern Hemisphere. 00.00h CLong

     

    North Solstice   – Date and Time Sun reaches its’ furthest northern position ~ 23.5 degrees Nth. of the Celestial Equator. The Tropic of

    Cancer on the Earth’s surface, northern limit

    of Sun overhead.

                       

    Southward Equinox – Day and Time

    Sun crosses the Celestial Equator travelling into the Southern Hemisphere.

     

    South Solstice – Date and Time the Sun

    reaches its furthest s outhern position ~ 23.5 degrees Sth. of the Celestial Equator.

    The Tropic of Capricorn on the Earth’s

    Surface, southern limit of Sun overhead.

     

    The preceeding 4 terms indicate:

    1.Direction of the Earth’s Poles

    relative to the Sun.

    2.Extent of the Nth/Sth movement

    of the Sun overhead

    3.Direction of seasonal change of the

    position of the Sun due to the angle of the

    Earth’s axis of rotation,  ~ 23.5  degrees.

    Ecliptic – Path of the Sun against the background of the stars.

     SCP – South Celestial Pole

    NCP -North Celestial Pole

    Both directly above the Earth’s Poles.

     

    The Point of Northward Precession –

     The point the Sun crosses  the Celestial Equator travelling  into the Northern Hemisphere. The point is actually moving 1/7 sec/day. It is linked  to Celestial Longitude as the point slowly  slips along the Celestial Equator.

     

    Epoch   For a printed map the stars positions are fixed and so the Epoch date needs to be stated, ie Current Epoch is 2000.  Printed star maps are good for about 50 years, then the next epoch data is required for astronomers, ie next epoch will be 2050.

     

    Tropical Year – Time for the Sun to travel from one Northward Equinox to next,

    365.2422 days.

     

    Siderial Year – Time taken for the Earth to complete one orbit relative to the fixed stars, 365.2564 days.

     

    The difference between the Tropical and Siderial years is due to the effects of

    precession, a gradual westward drift in the ecliptic. The gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon on the Earth’s equatorial bulge cause

    the Earth’s axis to trace out  a circle on the sky every 25,800yrs.

     

    Judith Bailey – Ballarat Municipal Observatory & Museum

    E:  info@ballaratobservatory.org.au 0429 199 312

     

    First printed 18.3.2010 Updated 20/7/2022

  • 27th  Jupiter is at opposition and closest for 59 years. Viewing available at the Observatory Book Online
  • 2nd Oct Daylight Savings begins. AEDT Time.

What’s in the Sky in July

Image: Looking towards the centre of our Milky Way Galaxy.  Credit: Mark Justice

July

At this time of the Year the spectacular heart of our Milky Way Galaxy is rising in the East.

  • The Centre of our Milky Way Galaxy is now rising in the late evening and the splendour of the Emu, brightest in dark skies, fills the night.
  • 13th Moon at Perigee, closest to Earth for the month, 19:04hrs, 357,263.2km.
  • 19th  Saturn is rising at 19:35hrs AEST and is at a distance 1,341,189,928 km, magnitude +0.5 and is moving closer and due to reach opposition on 15th August.
  • 20th International Moon Day
  • 26th Moon at Apogee, furthest from Earth for the month 20:22hrs AEST, 406, 273.1km.
  • 19th Jupiter is rising at 23:11hrs AEST with magnitude -2.6, distance 679,669 km.

Meteor Showers

5 July
The ANT is the chief focus for visual attention in the first half of July, as its radiant area moves steadily through eastern Sagittarius, then across northern Capricornus into southwest Aquarius. ZHRs for most of the month should be  2 to 3. For about a week around July 10, low activity may be observed from the July-Pegasids (175 JPE), this year in moonlit skies.
After mid-July the large ANT radiant area overlaps that of the minor -Capricornids (001 CAP) into August, but the lower apparent velocity of the CAP allows observers to separate the two. The stronger and faster Southern -Aquariids (005 SDA) should be distinguishable from the ANT as well. Finally, the radiant of the Piscis Austrinids (183 PAU) is distant enough from the ANT area. Association of meteors with one of the three radiants should be reliably possible particularly from the southern hemisphere. The highest rates are due on July 27 (PAU) and July 30 (CAP, SDA), respectively.
On 2016 July 28 at 00h07m UT ( = 125 :132) the July -Draconids (184 GDR) produced an outburst detected by radar and video observations (Molau et al., 2016b). The same position is reached again on 2022 July 28 near 17h UT, worth checking in case something may be observable around this time { although there was no activity observed in 2017 { 2020 (2021 still to come).
The radiant is at = 280,  = +51, and the meteors have low speed (V1 = 27 km/s). 12 IMO INFO(3-21)
Full Moon on August 12 will badly a ffect optical observations of the Perseid (007 PER) activity around their maximum. The timing of the nodal maximum at  = 140 :0 (2022 August 13, shortly after 01h UT) favours west European locations. The moon in Aquarius perhaps allows to observe the northern sky, but with severe light pollution.
Close to the highest Perseid activity, there is another approach to a calculated 1-revolution dust trail of comet C/1852 K1. A preceding approach is calculated for 2021 August 12 (and still awaits to be observed). The 2022 encounter on August 12, 04h22m UT, has a larger minimum distance between the orbits of the Earth and the comet than the 2021 approach (0.00040 au vs.0.00010 au). Considering only this parameter, the probability of any activity may be lower in
2022, but we do not know the extension and structure of the assumed trail.

Piscis Austrinids (183 PAU)
Active: July 15{August 10; Maximum: July 28 ( = 125); ZHR = 5;
V1 = 35 km/s; r = 3:2.
Still very little information has been collected on the PAU over the years although the shower is in all working lists (and \established” in the IAU list). Details on the shower are not well confi rmed, mainly because of the large amount of northern hemisphere summer data, and the relatively small number of southern hemisphere winter results, on it. View in the West, above Saturn and below Fomalhaut, before sunrise as early as possible.

 

Southern -Aquariids (005 SDA)
Active: July 12{August 23; Maximum: July 30 ( = 127); ZHR = 25;
V1 = 41 km/s; r = 2:5 (see text).
The shower belongs to the most active sources in the southern hemisphere. Radio work can pick up the SDA as well, and indeed the shower has sometimes given a surprisingly strong radio signature. Data collected by experienced observers under exceptional conditions in 2008 and IMO INFO(3-21) 13 2011 show that the maximum ZHR of the southern -Aquariids is around 25 for about two days. The ZHR exceeds 20 between  = 124 and 129. During the maximum
there are numerous bright SDA meteors visible, causing r  2:5 around the maximum and r  3:1 away from the peak period. In the past there were also outbursts observed: Australian observers reported a ZHR of 40 in the night 1977 July 28/29; again a ZHR of 40 was observed for 1.5 hours on 2003 July 28/29 from Crete (the ZHR before and after the outburst was around 20). Unfortunately, the 2003 observation was not confi rmed by other observers active in the
period. The extensive 2011 data set showed no ZHR enhancement at the same solar longitude as in 2003. The activity level and variations of the shower need to be monitored. New Moon on July 28 is optimal for all optical observations. While at mid-northern latitudes only a small portion of the shower meteors is visible, conditions signi ficantly improve the further south the location is.

ANT -Capricornids (001 CAP)
Active: July 3{August 15; Maximum: July 30 ( = 127); ZHR = 5;
V1 = 23 km/s; r = 2:5.
The CAP and SDA radiants were both de nitely detected visually in all years, standing out against those much weaker ones supposed active in Capricornus-Aquarius then. Although the radiant of the CAP partly overlaps that of the large ANT region, the low CAP velocity should allow both video and visual observers to distinguish between the two sources. Frequently, bright and at times reball-class shower meteors are seen. Minor rate enhancements have been reported at a few occasions in the past. The highest observed ZHR of  10 dates back to 1995. Recent results suggest the maximum may continue into July 31.

DATA Credit: IMO

 

What’s in the Sky in April

April

  • 8th Luna Apogee, furthest distance from Earth for the month 05:10hr AEST 404,438.8km.
  • 8th Luna lowest altitude 27 degrees Nth.
  • The Emu, which contains the area of the Centre of our Milky Way Galaxy, is now rising in the East just after 9.00pm AEST. The Emu is formed by the dust lanes of the Milky Way with the head of the Emu just below the Southern Cross, the dark area also called the Coal Sack, as it it so dark except for BZ Crucis. BZ Crucis forms the eye of the Emu and is a 5th Magnitude Variable Star 1217 light years from our solar system.

 

 

  • 10th Pluto, Saturn, Mars, Venus, Jupiter and Neptune are all together in the morning sky before sunrise. Neptune is very close just East of Jupiter.

East
  • 20th Moon at Perigee 01:12hrs AEST, 365,143.7 km.
  • 22th Luna at it’s highest altitude, 27 degrees Sth.
  • 22nd Earth Day – marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in 1970.

 

What’s in the Sky in March

March

  • 11th Luna Apogee, furthest distance from Earth for the month 10:04hr AEDT 404,268.9km.
  • 12th Luna lowest altitude 27 degrees North.
  • 12th The Large Magellanic Cloud  (LMC) reaches highest altitude about 9.00pm AEDT at magnitude 0.28. The LMC is a spiral galaxy in Dorado at a distance of 160kly and a diameter of 29.7kly in diameter.  The Tarantula Nebula, NGC 2070 is located in this area and is magnitude 5. it is 1,833ly in diameter. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) located nearby is a spiral Galaxy in Tucana and 200kly in distance and 17.5kly in diameter. visual magnitude is 2.29. These two irregular dwarf are members of our local group and are orbiting the Milky Way Galaxy.
  • Kourtchin (Boorong) refer to the Magellanic Clouds as the male (LMC) and female (SMC), Brolgas. Each cloud resembles the colour and pitted shell of the Brolga egg. Brolgas breed from October to April , when the clouds are at their highest, extending into nearby stars the larger one is trumpeting and the smaller one displaying, but dancing as a pair towards each other.

 

 

  • 12th Venus, Mars,Saturn then Mercury are rising before the Sun.
  • 11th Mercury has joined Saturn, Venus and Jupiter in a quadruple conjunction in the morning sky.
  • 21st Northward Equinox, 02:34hrs AEDT. The Sun crosses the Celestial Equator and moves into the Northern Hemisphere Sky.

  • 21st Jupiter is 1 dgree Nth of Mercury in the morning sky before sunrise.
  • 21st International Day of Forests – Trees are critical in maintaining the health of our Planet:
    A healthy 100-foot-tall tree has about 200,000 leaves. A tree this size can take 11,000 gallons of water from the soil and release it into the air again as oxygen and water vapor in a single growing season.
    * Native tree species support natural ecosystems by providing habitat and food for birds, mammals, and insects.
    * The planting of trees improves water quality. Tree’s complex root network reduces runoff and erosion. This allows more recharging of the ground water supply. Wooded areas help prevent the transport of sediment and chemicals into streams. Studies show up to 88 percent of nitrate and 76 percent of phosphorus is reduced after agricultural runoff passes through a forested streamside buffer.
    * In addition to all these things, forested streamside buffers also filter sediment from streams, stabilize streambanks, shade and modify stream temperatures, sequester carbon to help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce downstream flooding. And the presence of mature trees in a buffer makes the stream wider.
    * A mature tree absorbs carbon dioxide at a rate of 48 pounds per year. In one year, an acre of forest can absorb twice the CO2 produced by the average car’s annual mileage.
    NONE of THE ABOVE OCCURS ON MARS OR ANY OTHER PLANET WE KNOW OF.
  • 24th Moon at Perigee 10:43hrs AEDT, 369,760.9 km.
  • 25th Luna at it’s highest altitude, 27 degrees.

 

What’s in the Sky in February

February

  • 5th Saturn in conjunction with the Sun.
  • 6th Luna lowest altitude 26 degrees North of the Celestial Equator.
  • 11th The Large Magellanic Cloud  (LMC) reaches highest altitude about 9.30pm AEDT at magnitude 0.28. The LMC is a spiral galaxy in Dorado at a distance of 160kly and a diameter of 29.7kly in diameter.  The Tarantula Nebula, NGC 2070 is located in this area and is magnitude 5. it is 1,833ly in diameter. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) located nearby is a spiral Galaxy in Tucana and 200kly in distance and 17.5kly in diameter. visual magnitude is 2.29. These two irregular dwarf are members of our local group and are orbiting the Milky Way Galaxy.
  • Kourtchin (Boorong) refer to the Magellanic Clouds as the male (LMC) and female (SMC), brolgas. Each cloud resembles the colour and pitted shell of the brolga egg. Brolgas breed from October to April , when the clouds are at their highest, extending into nearby stars the larger one is trumpeting and the smaller one displaying, but dancing as a pair towards each other.

 

 

  • 11th Saturn, Venus, Mercury and Mars are rising before the Sun.
  • 11th Mercury has joined Saturn, Venus and Jupiter in a quadruple conjunction in the morningg sky.
  • 11th Luna Apogee, furthest distance from Earth for the month 12:38hr AEDT 404,898.3km.
  • 15th Venus a thin crescent, magnitude -4.9 a very bright object in the morning sky, distance 63,656,982km  27.4%illuminated.
  • 26th Luna at it’s highest altitude, 26 degrees South of the Celestial Equator.
  • 27th Moon at Perigee 8:26hrs AEDT, 367,792.0 km.
  • 28th Mars 3 degrees Nth and Venus 8 degrees  Nth of Luna.

 

What’s in the Sky in January

January

  • At this time of the year the Great Orion Nebula is rising in the East. The Boorong call this constellation Kulkunbulla, a number of young men dancing. Just East of Orion is the brightest star in the sky, Sirius, Alpha Canis major, which also forms the body of Warepil, the Wedge-tailed Eagle, Australia’s largest bird.
  • 2nd Lunar Perigee, closest approach for the month 09:55hr AEDT, Dist. 352,904km.
  • 3rd Perihelion of C/2021 A1 (Leonard) reaches periapse, the point in it’s orbit nearest to the focus of gravitational attraction, the Sun. Image:JBailey Comet Leonard 20 sec.f/2.8 50 mm ISO 3200 Canon EOS 5D Mark lll 21:27hrs AEDT
  • Leonard
  • 4rd Earth is at Perihelion, closest approach to the Sun at 147.1 million km, peri means close, apo means far, and helios means the Sun. Currently occurring about 2 weeks after the December Solstice, the furthest the Sun travels South, the Tropic of Capricorn. In 1246, the December Solstice was on the same day as the Earth reached its perihelion. Since then, the perihelion and aphelion dates have drifted by a day every 58 years. The dates can vary by up to 2 days each year.
  • 4th the waning gibbous Moon will be good for the expected Quadrantid meteor shower (QUA) active December 28th to Januaray 12th, maximum on January 3rd 20h40m UT – (4th Jan 07:40hrs AEDT), expected ZHR = 120 (can vary ≈ 60–200).  Here in Ballarat the Radiant point doesn’t rise until after 10:30hrs AEDT and so the meteor shower is below the NE-N horizon but it maybe possible to see the end of bright meteors coming from north of Arcturus,below the horizon.
  • 7th Latest sunset of the Year 21:49:25hrs AEDT at the Observatory.
  • 7th Mercury at greatest elongation East 19Degrees East of the Sun, Saturn, Jupiter and distant Pluto are setting just after the Sun.
  • 6th Saturn Setting at 22:23hrs AEDT, dist 1,614,066,381km, mag. 0.7.
  • 6th Jupiter 4 degrees Nth of the Moon, distance 842, 258,288km, mag. -2.1.
  • 14th Luna Apogee, furthest distance from Earth for the month 20:26hr AEDT 405,804.5km.
  • 18th Asteroid (7482) 1994  PC1 was discovered by Robert H. McNaught  on 9th August 1994. 7482 is more than twice the size of the Empire State Building and will come within 1.98 million kilometers of the Earth on January 18, according to NASA. At between 1 and 1.3 kilometers wide, NASA considers asteroid 7482 ‘potentially hazardous,’ with the Davidson Institute of Science calculating asteroids over 140 meters would release at least a thousand times more energy than the first atomic bomb on impact with Earth, while an asteroid over 300 meters could destroy an entire continent. Of course, any chances of such an impact are entirely unlikely, as the closest 7482 is likely to come to Earth is more than five times the distance of that between the Earth and the Moon, and it is also not alone in being a potentially hazardous asteroid passing by this month. Asteroid 2013 YD48 will fly past Earth January 12 around 5.59 million kilometers away, and asteroid 2017 XC62 will pass around 7.2 million kilometers away on January 24. NASA Link to Video about potentially hazardous asteroids)
  • 30th Lunar Perigee, 2nd for the month, and 2nd closest 18:11hr AEDT, Dist. 362,252.4km

What’s in the Sky in May

Image: Looking East, 6th May 04:00hrs AEST

May

  • 6-7th Eta Aquarid Meteor shower peaks on the afternoon of the 6th at 13:00hrs AEST,  ~50 meteors /hour, travelling at 65.9km/sec.  This meteor shower is active from April 29th – May 28th and is visible as the Earth is passing through the debris left by Comet Halley as it orbits the Sun every 76 years. Start looking on the 6th from 4.00 am and come out again on the 7th same time, either side of the peak. Recent peak ZHRs were ~2008 -85, 2009-70, 2017-75, 2018-60, 2019-50, 2020-55 (preliminary), this might indicate rather a trend to lower ZHRs, but observations are needed to find out whether this is the case, or if the rates change in another way. The radiant (point from which they appear to come from) is just below and to the West of Jupiter. Rug up well with a thermos nearby to keep warm.
  • 12th Moon at Apogee, furthest from Earth for the month, 7:54hrs AEST, 406,509.8km.
  • 26th Moon at Perigee 11:49hrs AEST, 357,311.7 km. The Moon will be the closest for some time and if clear, a magnificent sight in the evening. A Total Eclipse of the Moon – Viewing at the Observatory will begin from 19:00hrs AEST.
  • Ballarat Local Time for Eclipse

    Penumbra entered 26 May 2021 18:47 AEST
    Umbra entered 26 May 2021 19:44 AEST
    Totality begins 26 May 2021 21:06 AEST
    Totality ends 26 May 2021 21:31 AEST
    Umbra left 26 May 2021 22:54 AEST
    Penumbra left 26 May 2021 23:51 AEST

What’s in the Sky in November

November

  • 6th Moon at Perigee 09:21 AEDT  Perigee distance 358843.4km
  • 8th Mars is an early morning object close to Mercury and is a very distant object Mag. 1.6  Dist. 383,731,208km. Tilt of North pole towards Earth is 18.8823 degrees.
  • 8th Saturn at mag. 0.6 rising 11:49hr AEDT, Dist. 1,500,835,194km. Tilt of Saturn’s North pole towards Earth is 19.2001 degrees.
  • 8th Jupiter is an evening objects during November rising at 13:06AEDT,  mag. -2.4, dist. 798,503.513km, tilt of North Pole towards Earth is 0.5206 degrees.
  • 8th 1 degree South of the Moon, Venus is a bright  evening object rising at 08:47hr AEDT, mag. -4.6, Dist. 88,244km. 44.14% illuminated.
  • 8th Mercury is an early morning object rising at 05:29hr AEDT just before the Sun. Mag. -0.41.5, dist. 137,593,293km. Tilt of North Pole towards earth is 0.3368degrees.
  • 9th Moon at it’s highest altitude 26 Degrees.
  • 17th Leonids Meteor shower peak is 20hr30m AEDT best visibility at predawn.

Leonids (LEO)Active: November 6—30; Z ~ 10; V∞ = 71 km/s.

The last perihelion passage of the Leonid’s parent comet, 55P/Temple-Tuttle, in 1998 is almost two decades ago now. With the knowledge of the dust ejection and trail evolution, variable activity has been modelled and observed in several years. The Leonids occur during a nearly Full Moon and so the shower will no be easy to view this year.  Credit:IMO. Radiant lower middle of image.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Right: Engraving by Adolf Vollmy (1889)

This famous engraving of the 1833 Leonid meteor shower was produced for the Adventist book Bible Readings for the Home Circle by Adolf Vollmy. It’s based on a painting by Swiss artist Karl Jauslin, which, in turn, was based on a first-person account of the 1833 storm by a minister, Joseph Harvey Waggoner, who saw the 1833 shower on his way from Florida to New Orleans.

In that famous shower, hundreds of thousands of meteors per hour were seen! It was the first recorded meteor storm of modern times.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • 19th Partial (Almost Total) Eclipse of the Moon – Visible after sunset as it is moving out of eclipse.
  • 21st Moon at Apogee 13:16hr AEDT, Dist. 406,277.7km.

 

  • 27th Monocerotids Meteor Shower Peak in the evening.

Monocerotids (019 MON) Active: November 27–December 20; Maximum: December 9 ; ZHR = 3; V∞ = 42 km/s.

This minor shower’s details need further improvement by observational data. In most years,

visual data give a maximum ZHR = 3, while the general ZHR level is about 2.

December’s 4 day old Moon creates good conditions for either potential maximum timing, as the radiant area is available virtually all night for much of the globe. Credit IMO.  Radiant of shower below Betelgeuse.

 

What’s in the Sky in December

December

  • 4th Partial Eclipse of the Sun. Just a small arc of the Sun will be covered by the Moon at 20:10AEDT.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • 4th Moon at Perigee 21:06 AEDT  Perigee distance 356,793.718km
  • 4th Mars is an early morning object  Mag. 1.6  Dist. 369,833,839 km. Tilt of North pole towards Earth is 12.6106 degrees.
  • 4th Saturn at mag. 0.7 setting at 00:23 AEDT on the 5th, Dist. 1,560,519,261km. Tilt of Saturn’s North pole towards Earth is 18.5672 degrees.
  • 4th Jupiter is an evening object setting at 01:12AEDT on the 5th,  mag. -2.3, dist. 776,514,431km, tilt of North Pole towards Earth is 0.5685 degrees.
  • 4th Mercury is an evening object very close to the Sun.
  • 4th-17th  Geminids Meteor Shower  Maximum: December 14, 07h UT ( 18Hr AEDT);  ZHR = 150; Velocity = 35 km/s. The best and most reliable of the major annual showers presently observable reaches its broad maximum on December 14 centred at 07h UT. Well north of the equator, the radiant rises about sunset, reaching a usable elevation from the local evening hours onwards. In the southern hemisphere, the radiant appears only around local midnight or so. It culminates near 02h
    local time. Even from more southerly sites, this is a splendid stream of often bright, medium-speed meteors, a rewarding event
    for all observers, whatever method they employ.
    The peak has shown little variability in its timing in recent years, with the more reliably-reported maxima during the past two decades  all having occurred around 2021 December 13, 14h to December 14, 12h UT. The peak ZHRs have shown a slight increase over a longer period and reached 140{150 in all recent years. Usually, near-peak Geminid rates persist for several hours, so much of the world has the chance to enjoy something of the shower’s best. Mass-sorting within the stream means fainter meteors should be most abundant almost a day ahead of the visual maximum. The 2021 return occurs only four days before full Moon. Depending on the latitude, the moon sets around 02h local time and leaves about 3{5 hours for observations in a dark sky. Source: IMO
  • 18th Moon at Apogee 13:16hr AEDT, Dist. 406,316.3km.
  • 17th – 24th C/2021  A1 (Leonard) is due in our skies after sunset. All being well, it may even get a little brighter than currently predicted, we will soon find out.
  • 22nd South Solstice  (or Summer Solstice in Southern Hemisphere) 03:00AEDT.  The Sun is at it’s Southern most position, -23  26′ 07.39″

 

Finder maps for C/2021 A1 (Leonard) below